Technical Specifications





Ceramic and Porcelain

A full chart of technical specifications of our ceramic and porcelain series is available here for download. You can refer to the following paragraphs for an explanation of the Industry Standard Tests.

ASTM Standards

ASTM International - ASTM is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. ASTM standards are used globally to improve product quality, enhance safety, and facilitate trade.

Water Absorption (ASTM C373)

This is the measurement of density, porosity and specific gravity as a tool for determining the degree of maturation of a tile or for determining structural properties that may be required for a given application.

Tiles are classified according to water absorption percentages as follows:
Impervious tile: < .5%
Vitreous tile: .5% - 3%
Semi-vitreous tile: 3% - 7%
Non-vitreous: >7%

Coefficient of Friction – COF (ASTM C1028)

COF defines the relative slip resistance of floor surfaces, measuring the maximum force required to initiate motion of a 50 pound weigh. The horizontal dynamometer pull meter and heel assemblies are designed to determine the static coefficient of friction of tile and like materials. Because many variables may enter into the evaluation of slip resistance of a particular surface, this test method is designed to evaluate these surfaces under both laboratory and actual site installation conditions.

The static coefficient of friction is determined under both wet and dry conditions with Neolite heel assemblies over both unprepared and prepared (cleaned) test surfaces.

Breaking Strength (ASTM C648)

Force on an unsupported portion of tile until breakage occurs, expressed in lbs. This test covers the determination of the breaking strength of glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, and paver tile. Ceramic tiles used on floors and walls must be able to withstand the expected load bearing capacity of various installations.

Scratch Hardness (MOH’s Hardness Scale)

Tile surface resistance to scratching by different minerals, the softest being talc (1) and the hardest diamond (10).

The MOH’s scale of hardness is the most common method used to rank gemstones and minerals according to hardness. Because the Mohs scale is a relative scale, the difference between the hardness of a diamond and that of a ruby is much greater than the difference in hardness between calcite and gypsum.

Abrasion Resistance (ASTM C1027)

This test measures the visible surface abrasion of the tile during testing procedure. The test is developed to measure the resistance of tile surfaces to surface abrasion. Below is the classification for this test:

Class 0: Not suitable for floors.
Class 1: Residential, light traffic.
Class 2: Residential, medium to light traffic.
Class 3: Residential, heavy traffic - Commercial, light traffic.
Class 4: Commercial, considerable traffic.
Class 5: Commercial, heavy traffic.

Chemical Resistance (ASTM C650)

Tile sample in continuous contact with a variety of chemicals for 24 hours. The test is intended for tile that will be used for lavatories, food counters or similar residential, commercial or medical installations. A tile sample is placed in continuous contact with a variety of chemicals for 24 hours, rinsing the surface and then examining the surface for visible variation.

Shade Variations

Tiles may vary in color, texture, or appearance according to the manufacturer’s design for that particular tile series of product line. The following aesthetic class designations have been provided in the Table, so that the manufacturer may communicate the aesthetic characteristics of a particular tile product.

V0 = Very Uniform Appearance. Pieces of the same shade value are very uniform and smooth in texture. They can be measured for small color differences and are in compliance with the color uniformity requirements of ANSI A137.1 Tables 6-10 where a V0 shade has a 3 Judds maximum tolerance in color uniformity per ASTM C609.

V1 = Uniform Appearance. Differences among pieces from the same production run are minimal.

V2 = Slight Variation. Clearly distinguishable differences in texture and/or pattern with similar colors.

V3 = Moderate Variation. While the colors and/or texture present on a single piece of tile will be indicative of the colors and/or texture to be expected on the other tiles, the amount of colors and/or texture on each piece may vary significantly. It is recommended that the range be viewed before selection.

V4 = Substantial Variation. Random color and/or texture differences from tile to tile, so that one tile may have totally different color and/or texture from that on other tiles. Thus, the final installation will be unique. It is recommended that the range be viewed before selection.

Table: Shade Variation

For Aesthetic Classes V0, V1 and V2, there should be minimal visible box-to-box variation present between boxes labeld with identical shade values. Tiles with a V3 or V4 aesthetic class may exhibit box-to-box variations. However, these products should have a continuous natural blend.

Engineered Stone

The information contained herein is offered in good faith and it is understood that it is precise and accurate. This information should not be used in substitution of client's own tests, in order to ensure the safety of these products and make sure they are in total accordance and are satisfactory for pretended use.

Compressive Strength ASTM C 192 Stone Veneer: 160 kg/cm² (2,273 psi)
Flexural Strength ASTM C 348 Stone Veneer: 31.7 kg/cm (450 psi)
Tensile Strength ASTM C 190 Stone Veneer: 21.1 kg/cm  (300 psi)
Bond Strength ASTM C 482 Stone Veneer: 3.52 kg/cm  (50 psi)
Freeze/Thaw Resistance ASTM C 67 Stone Veneer: 50 cycles  (50 cycles)
Average Density ASTM C 567 Stone Veneer: (125 lb/cu ft)
Water Absorption UBC 15-5 Stone Veneer: <15%  <15% 
Average Weight Stone Veneer: 35 to 45 kg/m²  (7.2 to 9.2 lb/sq ft)
Maximum Dims (Length) Stone Veneer: 600 mm (23.6")
Average Thickness Stone Veneer: 15 to 100 mm (0.6" to 3.9")


Portland Cement, Mineral Aggregates, 
Iron Oxide Pigments, Concrete Additives
Color becomes an integral part of the product 
during manufacturing process. Existing installations 
demonstrate than no significant changes in color 
are shown through several years outdoors.   
Thermal Properties Thickness of the product may vary, but isolating 
properties of stone veneer of an average 
thickness is about the same of a common 
6” masonry brick.  
Flamespread or Smoke Developed Zero.